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0 Uses of Signal Analyzer For OTA, CATV, and Satellite By Patrick Stox

Uses of Signal Analyzer For OTA, CATV, and Satellite
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0 The Features of the MSK200 Signal Analyzer By Patrick Stox

Since LBA introduced the Kathrein MSK-200 TV Signal Analyzer to the Americas last year, it has been enthusiastically welcomed by TV engineers. As an economical portable or fixed 6 'n 1 digital signal test solution it was without compare. And we have had extensive wish list feedback.
Now the German engineering wizards at Kathrein have added a whole galaxy of new features, as you requested, shipping immediately - Same old price!
• ATSC/8VSB analysis for new USA DTV signal standards
• MPEG-4 decoding and transport stream information
• Dolby AC-3 audio decoding/demodulation
• SMPTE-310 HD video analysis
• Automatic loop testing
• DVB-S2 satellite standard analysis capability
• Automatic channel scanning
• MER/BER/Signal-to-Noise automatic measurements
• And more.....
Here is an overview of the major new features and how they will make your engineering life easier.
ATSC/8VSB Decoding:
The MSK-200 has recently been updated to support and analyze the new USA DTV ATSC signal standard as well as measure and analyze 8VSB sideband modulation in real time. Broadcasters and Cable operators can now diagnose and repair issues in multi-path transmission. In addition, the MSK-200 can scan and find transport stream information for this new standard and allow broadcasters to find issues in PID, PMT-PID, PCR, CA and elementary stream ID's as well as decode video images and demodulate audio including Dolby AC-3. This is essential for installing, maintaining and repairing our new DTV signal standards.
MPEG-4 Decoding and Viewing:
The MSK-200 has always supported MPEG-2 streams. Now it does MPEG-4 decoding! MPEG-4 is especially important as it is used for compressing different formats (audio/video/speech). Key features of MPEG-4 are improved coding efficiency, robust transmission, enhanced bit rate usage and compressed services. MPEG-4 is also playing a large role in new HD technologies such as blue-ray. Now the MSK-200 can decode and view video and audio for picture and audio quality analysis.
Dolby AC-3 Audio Demodulation:
New digital audio formats can now be demodulated and listened to while viewing the image. The MSK-200 becomes a major aid in real-time transmission quality control. The AC-3 audio format is prominent on HD TV and MPEG-4.
SMPTE-310 HD Analysis:
The MSK-200 now allows viewing and analysis of transport streams using SMPTE-310 for HD video. It can display video and decode audio to measure HD streams and signals and provide transport stream information.
Automatic CATV Loop Testing:
This new feature will help Cable engineers to measure ingress from headend to subscriber for signal quality issues. CATV systems need to test nodes for proper distribution of signals to customers and loop testing will allow for these measurements to be made and ensure functionality from headend to customer and provide RF information.
DVB-S2 Satellite Standard Monitoring:
The MSK-200 now supports the new generation of the older DVB-S broadcast standard for high definition via satellite. This is especially helpful in transmitting HDTV satellite news gathering content back to the station. When compression is added, DVB-S2 allows for MPEG-4 services to be delivered. DVB-S2 performs about 30% better than the previous DVB-S standard. Now you can analyze and monitor these streams in real time.
Automatic Channel Scanning:
Automatic channel scanning enhances a user's ability to customize their own channel plan in the MSK-200 for quick access to each carrier, channel and frequency of interest. Users can program modulation symbol rates, frequencies, associated channels, satellites and transponders, so each can be accessed quickly eliminating the need for repetitive manual parameter entry. This is a real time saver- even better, you can download and select multiple channel programs!
MER/BER/Signal-to-Noise Automatic Measurements:
Now signal quality measurements are automatically displayed during measurements to show MER, BER Pre and Post Viterbi and Signal-to-Noise levels. This allows for users to monitor essential quality levels while making using most measurements in the MSK-200.
Patrick S is the author of this article.
Click to find out more about the MSK200 Signal Analyzer.
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0 Merchant account

Merchant account

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A merchant account is a type of bank account that allows businesses to accept payments by debit or credit cards. A merchant account also serves as an agreement between a retailer, a merchant bank and payment processor for the settlement of credit card and/or debit card transactions.

Methods of processing credit cards

Today a majority of credit card transactions are sent electronically to merchant processing banks for authorization, capture and deposit. Various methods exist for presenting a credit card sale to "the system." In all circumstances either the entire magnetic strip is read by a swipe through a credit card terminal/reader, a computer chip is read, or the credit card information is manually entered into a credit card terminal, a computer or website. The earliest methods, submitting credit card slips to a merchant processing bank by mail, or by accessing an Automated Response Unit (ARU) by telephone, are still in use today but have long been overshadowed by electronic devices. These early methods used two-part forms and a manual device for mechanically imprinting the embossed card number information onto the forms.

[edit] Credit card terminal

A typical credit card terminal that is still popular today.
A credit card terminal is a stand-alone piece of electronic equipment that allows a merchant to swipe or key-enter a credit card's information as well as additional information required to process a credit card transaction. A credit card terminal is a dedicated piece of equipment that only processes credit cards although it is common for related transactions including gift cards and check verification to also be performed. A credit card terminal typically must be plugged in to a power supply and connected to a telephone line. However, some terminals may be powered by batteries, communicate over the Internet or through the cellular phone networks. When a credit card is processed (either swiped through the magnetic stripe reader or keyed in to the keypad), it contacts the network to verify if the credit card can be authorized. The transaction is then stored on the machine until the polling window is opened. The machine will either upload the electronic funds directly to the merchant bank, or a polling service provider will dial in to collect, process then submit the data to the merchant bank. The most popular credit card terminals consist of a modem, keypad, printer, magnetic stripe reader, power supply and memory card. They have had the same basic design since the 1980s. As with computers, there is a wide range of memory capacities and other features like built-in printers and debit card pinpads that affect the manufacturing cost of a credit card terminal.

[edit] Automated Response Unit (ARU)

An ARU (also known as a voice authorization, capture and deposit) allows the manual keyed entry and subsequent authorization of a credit card over a cellular or land-line telephone. With this method a merchant typically imprints their customer's card with an imprinter to create a customer receipt and merchant copy, then process the transaction instantaneously over the phone.

[edit] Payment gateway

A payment gateway is an e-commerce service that authorizes payments for e-businesses and online retailers. It is the equivalent of a physical POS (point-of-sale) terminal located in most retail outlets. A merchant account provider is typically a separate company from the payment gateway. Some merchant account providers have their own payment gateways but the majority of companies use 3rd party payment gateways. The gateway usually has 2 components: a) the virtual terminal that can allow for a merchant to securely login and key in credit card numbers or b) have the website's shopping-cart connect to the gateway via an API to allow for real time processing from the merchant's website.

[edit] Level 2 or Level 3 Processing - Purchasing Cards

Visa and Mastercard have created a specialized type of credit card used primarily by government agencies and businesses. Increasingly, corporations and government agencies are relying on this form of payment to compensate their service providers and suppliers. Businesses benefit by receiving their funds quickly and by winning competitive bids and government contracts where purchasing cards are the required form of payment. The downside, however, is the increased costs associated with receiving these payments. These costs will usually be much higher than accepting a standard consumer credit card.
The solution is that some businesses may qualify for ways to process these transactions that allow them to pay lower fees if they can supply additional information, called "level 2 or level 3 data". For example, if government transactions are over $5,000, businesses can significantly reduce their transaction costs by including "level 2 or level 3 data" about the purchase along with each transaction. Examples of level 2 or level 3 data is a purchase order number associated with the transaction that the credit card will be paying. This data is passed on to the purchaser so that it may be many times easier to reconcile the transaction. If all the required data is not collected and passed on during the transaction, the merchant can have surcharges added to the basic fees or be forced into a non qualified transaction category.

[edit] Merchant Account Marketing

Merchant accounts are marketed to merchants by two basic methods: either directly by the processor or sponsoring bank, or by an authorized agent for the bank and additionally directly registered with both Visa and MasterCard as an ISO/MSP (Independent Selling Organization / Member Service Provider). Marketing details are by card issuers like Visa and MasterCard, and are enforced by various rules and fines. A few of the largest processors also partner with warehouse clubs to promote merchant accounts to their business members, such as NovaMerchantFunding.

[edit] Marketing by Banks

A bank that has a merchant processing relationship with Visa and Mastercard, also known as a member bank, can issue merchant accounts directly to merchants. To reduce risk, some banks limit approval to merchants in its geographical area, those with a physical retail storefront, or those that have been in business for 2 years or more.

[edit] Marketing by Independent Sales Organization (ISO)/MSPs

To market merchant accounts, an ISO/MSP must be sponsored by a member bank. This sponsorship requires that the bank verify the financial stability and suitability of the company that will be marketing on its behalf. The ISO/MSP must also pay a fee to be registered with Visa and Mastercard and must comply with regulations in how they may market merchant accounts and the use of copyrights of Visa and Mastercard. One way to verify if an ISO/MSP is in compliance is to check a website or any other marketing material for a disclosure "company is a registered ISO/MSP of bank, town, state. FDIC insured". This disclosure is required by both Visa and Mastercard and will cause a fine of up to $25,000 if it is not clearly visible. In almost all cases, if there is no disclosure, the company is likely to be an uninformed 4th party or worse. In many cases unregistered operators have been responsible for some of the worst horror stories from merchants.

[edit] Rates and fees

A Merchant Account has a variety of fees, some periodic, others charged on a per-item or percentage basis. Some fees are set by the merchant account provider, but the majority of the per-item and percentage fees are passed through the merchant account provider to the credit card issuing bank according to a schedule of rates called interchange fees, which are set by Visa and Mastercard. Interchange fees vary depending on card type and the circumstances of the transaction. For example, if a transaction is made by swiping a card through a credit card terminal it will be in a different category than if it were keyed in manually.

[edit] Discount Rates

The discount rate comprises a number of dues, fees, assessments, network charges and mark-ups merchants are required to pay for accepting credit and debit cards, the largest of which by far is the Interchange fee. Each bank or ISO/MLS has real costs in addition to the wholesale interchange fees, and creates profit by adding a mark-up to all the fees mentioned above. There are a number of price models banks and ISOs/MLSs use to bill merchants for the services rendered. Here are the more popular price models:

[edit] 3-Tier Pricing

The 3-Tier Pricing is the most popular pricing method and the simplest system for most merchants, although the new 6-Tier Pricing is gaining in popularity. In 3-Tier Pricing, the merchant account provider groups the transactions into 3 groups (tiers) and assigns a rate to each tier based on a criterion established for each tier.
[edit] First Tier - Qualified Rate
A qualified rate is the percentage rate a merchant will be charged whenever they accept a regular consumer credit card and process it in a manner defined as "standard" by their merchant account provider using an approved credit card processing solution. This is usually the lowest rate a merchant will incur when accepting a credit card. The qualified rate is also the rate commonly quoted to a merchant when they inquire about pricing. The qualified rate is created based on the way a merchant will be accepting a majority of their credit cards. For example, for an internet merchant, the internet interchange categories will be defined as non-Qualified, while for a physical retailer only transactions swiped through or read by their terminal in an ordinary manner will be defined as Qualified.
[edit] Second Tier - Mid-qualified Rate
Also known as a partially qualified rate, the mid-qualified rate is the percentage rate a merchant will be charged whenever they accept a credit card that does not qualify for the lowest rate (the qualified rate). This may happen for several reasons such as:
  • A consumer credit card is keyed into a credit card terminal instead of being swiped
  • A special kind of credit card is used like a rewards card or business card
A mid-qualified rate is higher than a qualified rate. Some of the transactions that are usually grouped into the Mid-Qualified Tier can cost the provider more in interchange costs, so the merchant account providers do make a markup on these rates.
The use of "rewards cards" can be as high as 40% of transactions. So it is important that the financial impact of this fee be understood. So therefore, merchants will be charged the qualified plus the mid qualified rate. Example) If your qualified rate is 1.5% and the mid qualified rate is 1 %, your effective rate would be 2.5 %.
[edit] Third Tier - Non-qualified Rate
The non-qualified rate is usually the highest percentage rate a merchant will be charged whenever they accept a credit card. In most cases all transactions that are not qualified or mid-qualified will fall to this rate. This may happen for several reasons such as:
  • A consumer credit card is keyed into a credit card terminal instead of being swiped and address verification is not performed
  • A special kind of credit card is used like a business card and all required fields are not entered
  • A merchant does not settle their daily batch within the allotted time frame, usually past 48 hours from time of authorization.
A non-qualified rate can be significantly higher than a qualified rate and can cost the provider much more in interchange costs, so the merchant account providers do make a markup on these rates.

[edit] 6-Tier Pricing

As a result of the Wal-Mart Settlement and to compete against PIN-based debit cards (which are processed outside of the Visa and Mastercard networks), Visa and Mastercard lowered the interchange rates for debit cards well below those for credit cards. Some providers can pass on the lower cost of these cards directly to merchants. Consequently, the 3 tiers programs have added 2 classifications for debit cards that are processed without a PIN or with a PIN for a total of 6 rate classifications.

[edit] Interchange Plus Pricing

Some providers offer merchant account services priced on an "interchange plus" basis. These accounts are based on the "interchange" tables published by both Visa Visa Interchange and MasterCard MasterCard Interchange. This type of pricing creates a discount rate by adding interchange rates, fees, assessments, markups and other costs.

[edit] Bill Backs

A bill back is a relatively new price model and a variation on interchange plus pricing. It has some variations but the basic concept is that the merchant pays interchange on the statement that the transactions took place and then pay all other fees, like dues, fees and assessments, etc on the next month's statement. It requires a great deal of time to research the actual cost per transaction with the bill back system. Some merchants feel this form of pricing is very misleading.[who?]

[edit] Other Fees

[edit] Authorization fee

The Authorization fee (actually an authorization request fee) is charged each time a transaction is sent to the card-issuing bank to be authorized. The fee applies whether or not the request is approved. Note this is not the same as Transaction fee or Per Item fee.

[edit] Statement fee

The statement fee is a monthly fee associated with the monthly statement that is sent to the merchant at the end of each monthly processing cycle. This statement shows how much processing was done by the merchant during the month and what fees were incurred as a result.
Many times, the statement fee is not directly linked to "paper" statements but rather general overhead. This means that a provider would not waive this fee if a merchant chose to have a "paperless" statement.

[edit] Monthly minimum fee

The monthly minimum fee is a way to ensure that merchants pay a minimum amount in fees each month to cover costs from the provider to maintain the account and to create minimal profits. If a merchant's qualified fees do not equal or exceed the monthly minimum they will be charged up to the monthly minimum to satisfy their minimum fee requirements.
Example: A merchant has signed a contract with a $25.00 monthly minimum fee. If all the fees for the most recent month of processing total only $15.00, this merchant will be charged an additional $10.00 to meet their monthly minimum requirements. Sometimes there are fees that are charged that are not a part of the monthly minimum, such as statement fees. It is industry standard to charge a monthly minimum.

[edit] Batch fee

A batch fee (also known as a batch header fee) can be charged to a merchant whenever the merchant "settles" their terminal. Settling a terminal, also known as "batching", is when a merchant sends their completed transactions for the day to their acquiring bank for payment. Some providers perform this automatically. It is important to close a batch every 24 hours or a higher rate will be assessed by Visa or Mastercard.

[edit] Customer Service fee

The customer service fee (also known as a maintenance fee) can be charged by some providers to pay for the cost of customer service.

[edit] Annual fee

The Annual fee can be charged by some providers to pay for costs of maintaining the merchant's account. Sometimes these fees can be quarterly. The fee can be from $79–$399.

[edit] Early Termination fee

The early termination fee can be charged by some providers if the merchant ends the contract before the end of the contract term. While contract terms of 1–3 years are typical, some providers have terms of up to 5 years with a one year prior notice to cancel or the fee will be assessed. Some providers also assess all statement fees and monthly minimums remaining when the contract is terminated. Some providers may also assess a "lost profit" fee based on an assumption of profits they concluded they would have earned during the full term of the contract.

[edit] Chargeback fee

The chargeback is the largest risk that is presented to banks and providers. This is not to be confused with a refund, which is simply a merchant refunding a transaction. In the Visa and Mastercard rules, the merchant's processing bank is 100% responsible for all the transactions that the merchant performs. This can leave the provider open to millions of dollars of potential losses if the merchant operates in an illegal or risky manner and generates many chargebacks. The providers pass this cost on to the merchant, but if the merchant is fraudulent or simply does not have the money, the provider must pay all the costs to make the card holder whole. The chargeback risk is the largest part taken into consideration during the contract application and underwriting process. Some banks are many times more stringent than others when assessing a merchant's chargeback risk.
If a merchant encounters a chargeback they may be assessed a fee by their acquiring bank. A potential chargeback is presented on behalf of the card holder's bank to the merchant's credit card processing bank. A reason code is established by the card issuer to properly identify the type of potential chargeback based on the card holder's complaint. The most common complaint is that the card holder can not remember the transaction. Usually, these potential chargebacks are corrected when the merchant's processing bank sends over more details about the transaction. Some providers charge a fee for this service, known as a "Retrieval Request". A chargeback can also be related to a fraud or similar dispute that the card holder is claiming to the merchant. This fee can be charged by some providers whether the chargeback is successful or not and is not dependent on the amount of the chargeback.
Currently both Visa and Mastercard require all merchants to maintain no more than 1% of dollar volume processed to be chargebacks. If the percentage goes above, there are fines starting at $5000 – $25,000 to the merchant's processing bank and ultimately passed on to the merchant.
In all cases, a chargeback will cost the merchant the chargeback fee, typically $15–$30, plus the cost of the transaction and the amount processed.
merchant accounts
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